63 delegates from 20 countries were registered. The ICP Vegetation, the ICP Waters, the ICP Forests, the ICP Integrated Monitoring, the Joint Expert Group on Dynamic Modelling, the Coordination Centre for Effects (CCE) were represented. Mr Giovani Vialletto and Pierre Sicard welcomed the participants to the meeting. Presentations and posters were made available on the ICP M&M site (www.icpmapping.org).
For the first time, in a joint meeting, the ozone and nitrogen impacts on forest, biodiversity, as well as on the ecosystems services and functions were discussed.
- Oral presentation: De Marco et al., “Bridging modelled and measured data to evaluate forest health and vitality”
The crown defoliation was predicted by statistical models in 2030 for the most common European tree species, considering three climate change scenarios and one air pollution scenario. In some cases, vitality may increase for a combination of more favourable climate for growth (CO2 and temperature) and nitrogen fertilization. On the other hand, increasing drought and disturbance (e.g. growth of insect populations) could cause adverse effects. The methodological approach described seems to be highly suitable to provide concrete benefits in the form of necessary information for policy makers to support forest management.
- Oral presentation: Paoletti et al., “Ozone fluxes and epidemiology of ozone injury to forests”
Ozone annual averages have been increasing in the past 20 years at both rural and urban sites in Europe and the USA. Epidemiology is the study of the patterns, causes, and effects of health and disease conditions in defined populations, to identify risk factors and targets for preventive healthcare. Ground-level ozone is an important atmospheric pollutant, a pressing sanitary problem for human and ecosystem health, and a serious climate forcer, but the quantification of its effects on real-world forests is challenging. Silvano Fares presented the different methods to derive large-scale stomatal ozone fluxes by modelling, micrometeorology or sap-flow measurements, and he reported novel results from cross-comparing of soil, meteorological, ozone and plant databases for Italian and French forests, where stomatal ozone fluxes were investigated. Large-scale epidemiological investigations, where large-scale biological responses are compared with ambient data in the field, provide useful information for establishing the best standards and thresholds for protecting plants from ozone. Epidemiological studies help to fill the gap between field conditions and lab studies. Among the tested metrics, the use of POD0 in the assessment of ozone risk for vegetation, is recommended because it has both biological significance and practicality in usage.
- Oral presentation: Sicard et al., “Adapting Mediterranean forests to climate change and ozone”
Pierre Sicard showed that AOT40 is inconsistent with forest condition because it does not account the kinds of tree species, genotypes, forest types and site conditions. Furthermore, he showed that PODY is well correlated with O3-induced symptoms whereas AOT40 is stronger correlated with discoloration and defoliation, i.e. typical aspecific indicators (multiple causes). FO3REST project is the first observation in field at large scale of the better performance of PODY relative to AOT40. P. Sicard highlighted that further field-based validation of O3 flux-effect relationships is required via epidemiological studies. A second goal of the study was to parameterize the DO3SE model, used for ozone-risk assessment and test the model performance against the measured values with Eddy Covariance. FO3REST provided an evaluation of the DO3SE model parameterisation under “Mediterranean style” conditions for Mediterranean tree species in 4 locations (San Rossore, Castelporziano in Italy, Puéchabon and Fontblanche in South of France). Pierre Sicard presented the first validation of the stomatal flux model DO3SE. Comparisons of measured and modelled stomatal conductance showed that modelled values underestimated the stomatal conductance of about 10%. The DO3SE parameterization will be included in the new version of the UNECE mapping manual for ozone-risk assessment.
Pictures during the conference in Rome and during the visit of the experimental site
for the Eddy-covariance campaign at Castelporziano.